Impact of Budget Cuts on Massachusetts' Gambling Research Initiatives
In 2011, Massachusetts enacted a casino law that mandated extensive research into the health and economic impacts of the gambling industry, a move applauded by experts in gambling addiction. However, as the state's gambling landscape has broadened, the budget allocated for this vital research has dwindled, raising concerns about the comprehensiveness of the available knowledge.
The Pioneering 2013 Gambling Study
The landmark study initiated in 2013 by Massachusetts researchers, led by UMass Amherst professor Rachel Volberg, was groundbreaking. Before any casinos opened in the state, the team reached out to 10,000 residents, aiming to understand the dynamics of problem gambling over time through a cohort study. This method involves tracking the same individuals periodically to observe changes in their gambling behaviors.
From the original cohort, 3,000 agreed to follow-up surveys, with about half identified as high-risk for gambling problems. The study aimed to ascertain the impact of new casinos on gambling behavior. “Do financial problems come before the gambling, or do they follow the gambling? When do people manifest problems, and in what order?” Volberg inquired.
Initial findings revealed that 2% of Massachusetts’ population suffered from severe gambling issues, with another 8% at risk. Surprisingly, these numbers remained stable even after brick-and-mortar casinos were introduced, possibly because many were already gambling in other states. The study also indicated that gambling habits can fluctuate between recreational and problematic.
Despite its promise, the study, costing nearly $1 million annually, was discontinued in 2019, just a year after the MGM Springfield casino opened and five years into the cohort study. Volberg lamented the lost opportunity to investigate the impacts of the introduction of sports betting. “It was a disappointment,” she admitted, highlighting the study's high cost.
Statewide Recognition and Budget Constraints
Massachusetts is renowned for dedicating substantial funds to gambling research, more than any other U.S. state. However, with no federal funding or national office for gambling research, states must devise their own plans and budgets. Keith Whyte of the National Council on Problem Gambling noted that some states deliberately avoid such research, potentially to obscure the problems created by gambling in their jurisdictions.
The Massachusetts Gaming Commission, which oversees the Public Health Trust Fund, has seen a decline in its share of the fund, now amounting to about $6 million. This budget covers both research and responsible gaming programs. Mark Vander Linden, from the commission, acknowledges the need for growth in this area.
New Research Directions
With the discontinuation of the cohort study, the focus shifts to other studies like the SEIGMA study, which examines the broader social and economic effects of gambling. This research has uncovered demographic disparities in gambling addiction and its correlation with other mental health issues.
Looking ahead, the commission plans to explore the impact of online gambling, its effects on youth, and the implications of expanding sports betting. The goal is to inform public health policy and possibly incorporate research findings into prevention and treatment strategies, an area where collaboration with public health leaders is yet to be realized fully.
In conclusion, while Massachusetts has taken significant steps in understanding and addressing gambling-related issues, the reduced scope of its research efforts and the evolving nature of the gambling industry present ongoing challenges that demand continued attention and resources.